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Buddhism is a religion and philosophy with between 230 and 500 million adherents worldwide, the vast majority living in Asia but with an increasing number in the West.

Since ancient times, the figure of the spiritual guide to the seeker of enlightenment has been at the centre of contemplative and esoteric traditions. It would appear that all such traditions stress the necessity of a spiritual preceptor.
The most fundamental question in all ethics is how to define the term ‘good'. That which is meant by good is, in fact, except its converse bad, the only simple object of thought peculiar to ethics.
Prudence is the bottom-line of ethical action. It teaches us how to live pleasantly, honorably and justly. One is to meditate prudently on the things one handles in one’s acts.
Plato explains the nature and the origin of justice in The Republic thus:
Virtue, generally, in all sorts of subjects, is something that is valued for eminence, and consists in comparison. For, if all things are equal in men, nothing will be praised.
Philosophy is commonly divided into speculative and practical categories. Morality is comprehended under the practical category. It is supposed to influence our passions and actions. It is to go beyond the calm and indolent judgments of the understanding. It is our experience that men are often governed by their duties and are deterred from some actions by the opinion of their being unjust, and impelled to others by that of obligation.
‘The end justifies the means’ is an age-old maxim. The conception involved in the maxim is basically the same as that in the notion of ends-in-themselves. The conception that certain things are ends-in-themselves may justify the belief that the relation of ends and means is unilateral proceeding from end to means.
Of desires, some are natural, others vain. Of the natural desires, some are necessary and others merely natural. Of the necessary, some are necessary for happiness, some for the repose of the body and others for very life.
Relations universally measure duties. One is to maintain one’s own position towards others. One need not examine what the other is doing, but what one must do is that one’s will shall be conformable to nature. Another’s will not damage one unless one chooses.
According to Mimamsa, actions are primarily of three kinds. First, obligatory actions are those that have to be performed by every man only because he is a man. Their performance supports man, society and the universe and does not bring any special kind of merit for man. But their non-performance produces demerit.
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