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Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma by its practitioners, a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law". Dr. Radhakrishnan notes: "Hinduism is not just a faith. It is the union of reason and intuition that can not be defined but is only to be experienced. Evil and error are not ultimate. There is no Hell, for that means there is a place where God is not, and there are sins which exceed his love".

Shankara dwells on the relation between the Absolute and the Self. It is true that the Absolute is the only reality. But what is to be said of the reality of what is empirically called the self? Shankara says that the self is empirically real, but transcendentally ideal.
For Shankara, from the point of view of the Absolute, Nature, Soul, and God are all appearances. Ontologically, the Absolute alone is; Nature, Soul and God are, only so far as they are, the Absolute.
The relation of the Upanisads to the Brahmasutras is as interesting and important as the relation of the Upanisads to the Bhagavad-Gita. As is known, the philosophy of the Vedanta in its various schools has been based upon these three foundations, namely, the Upanisads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavad-Gita.
In the Chhaandogya Upanisad, there is mention of a Krishna who was the son of Devaki.
In one important aspect, however, the Bhagavad-Gita takes a position antagonistic to the position advanced in the Upanisads. In the Katha Upanisad, there is the description of ‘the eternal Asvattha tree with its root upwards and branches downwards, which is the pure immortal Brahman,
There is a great truth in the famous saying that ‘the Upanisads are like a cow; Krishna like a milkman; Arjuna like the calf that is sent to the udders of the cow before milking; and the Bhagavad-Gita like the milk nectar that is churned from the udders of the cow'. The Bhagavad-Gita borrows ideas, phrases, and even sentences from the Upanisads.
The Upanisads are generally considered entirely different from the tenor and argument from the systems of Nyaya-Vaiseshika.
The Svetaasvatara Upanisad gives a detailed account of the Saamkhya philosophy as understood at the time the Upanisad was written.
Like Buddhism, Saamkhya was a system of philosophy that came into existence very early. Its origin may be traced to the Upanisadic literature, if not earlier.
The Upanisads constitute the bottom line for the growth and development of various systems of Indian thought such as the Buddhist as well as the Jain philosophy, the Samkhya as well as the Yoga, Mimamsa as well as Saivism, the theistic-mystic philosophy of the Bhagavad-Gita, or the Dvaita, the Visista- Advaita and the Advaita.