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Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma by its practitioners, a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law". Dr. Radhakrishnan notes: "Hinduism is not just a faith. It is the union of reason and intuition that can not be defined but is only to be experienced. Evil and error are not ultimate. There is no Hell, for that means there is a place where God is not, and there are sins which exceed his love".

While considering the theories of moral standard as advanced in the Upanisads, we are to bear in view that, as in the childhood of man, so in the beginning of the race, heteronomy is the first principle that dictates rules for moral conduct.
The moral issues in the Upanisads are connected with their metaphysics on the one hand, and the mysticism on the other. The problems of the relation of metaphysics and morality, and mysticism and morality have been debated from very ancient times.
Some important questions that confront the Upanisadic seekers after truth are these. If Self-consciousness were the final Reality, how would it be possible for us to realize it?
The Taittiriya Upanisad gives certain characteristics of the Ultimate Reality from the point of view of ontology. The Upanisad says, ‘The Absolute is Existence, Consciousness and Infinity' (II.1).
The Brhadaaranyaka Upanisad, in a dialogue between Yaajnavalkya and the King Janaka, says that Yaajnavalkya asks Janaka as to what psychological doctrines the latter has heard about the nature of the Ultimate Reality. Janaka is very inquisitive and philosophically inclined;
The Upanisadic philosophers went by the theological approach to the conception of reality. They began by enquiring how many gods must be supposed to exist in the universe.
The Upanisadic philosophers say that the Brahman which is the fount and the source of all existence and which is the origin of all power and resplendence is also the subtle essence underlying all the gross manifestations in the world.
An ordinary man is likely to consider the forces of nature as the Ultimate Reality. But a deeper speculation into events shows that the phenomenal forces cannot be taken to be ultimate realities. The Chhaandogya Upanisad illustrates this aspect in a story.
The supreme question that arises in relation to the Upanisads is ‘what is the core of Upanisadic teaching?’ Does it relate only to the metaphysical conflicts of Pluralism, Qualified Monism, and Monism?
Having traced the sources of the Doctrine of Maya in the Upanisads, it is but proper to have a brief account of that doctrine in its historical development in the post Upanisadic period.